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  • 3 Volcanic Craters On Martian Surface's Tharis Volcanic Plateau Named On Bharatiya Physicist Devendra Lal And Towns Of UP & Bihar

    Hello, Everyone! Three newly explored craters on the Martian surface have been named on the names of distinguished Cosmic Ray Physicist Late Devendra Lal and the towns in the northern part of Bharat in UP and Bihar namely Mursan and Hilsa respectively. The craters were spotted by a scientific team inclusive of researchers from the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in 2021, an international body approved the naming of the three craters -(IAU) International Astronomical Union in the early days of June i.e. 5th Of June 2024. What is the International Astronomical Union? It is an international non-governmental organization envisioned for advancing astronomy in every way such as promoting astronomical research, transcend, study, and establishment through worldwide coordination. The goal of IAU is to advance and secure astronomy in each and every aspect. According to PRL -Physical Research Laboratory situated in Ahmedabad which is a unit of the Department of Space of the Government of Bharat-the three craters were cited at Tharis Volcanic region of the Martian surface in a press release on Wednesday(12th June 2024). But what is the Tharsis Volcanic region? Located in the equator of the Martian Western Hemisphere the Tharsis is an enormous volcanic plateau and is a dwelling place for some of the greatest Volcanoes that exist in our solar system. On June 5, the International Astronomical Union approved the naming of the craters as "LAL" crater, "MURSAN" crater, and "HILSA" crater as per the statement given by Director of PRL -Anil Bharadwaj in a press release. PRL-Physical Research Laboratory recommended the approval "Mursan " is the name of a town in UP and Hilsa is situated in Bihar. Pic Source: Indian Express Pic URL : As per a statement, the discovery of the craters testifies drifting of a large part of sediment by water into the recently cited crater. This also proves that the Martian surface was wet formerly and it possessed water flows. The article featuring scientists Rajiv Bharti, Issac Smith, SK Mishra, N Shrivastava, and Shital Shukla states that volcanic craters were spotted within the Mangala crater of Mars through Mars SHAllow RADar sounder-SHARAD. But what is SHARAD? SHARAD is a subsurface-sounding radar that finds evidence of water and ice in the initial hundreds of meters of the Martian subsurface. The data sets of SHARAD are developed by the SHARAD science team. SHARAD is perched on MRO Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter probe which is a spacecraft engineered to look out for clues of water on the Martian surface. The hunt for water on the Martian surface is a part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. MRO has researched Mars's atmosphere and surface from orbit from the year 2006. It possesses a highly powerful camera which has enabled MRO in many explorations.MRO has provided thousands of images of Mars's surface that are playing a crucial in shoring up the scientists for an in-depth analysis of Mars which incorporates former events of water flows on the Martian surface or in the proximity of the Martian surface. Esteemeed scientists Rajiv Bharti, SK Mishra, and N Srivastava are members of PRL -Physical Research Laboratory. However, scientist Shital Shukla is linked to Gujrat University and Issac Smith is linked to York University situated in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Lal crater is the biggest among the three craters and has a width of 65 Km. It was named after the honorable cosmic ray Physicist Professor Devendra Lal. He served as a Director Of PRL from 1972 to 1983. As per a PRL release, superposed over the eastern and western sides of the rim of the Lal Crater are the two craters namely Mursan and Hilsa which extend over 10 Km. As per PRL, the observations of the subsurface radar SHARAD MRO : -> The LAL crater site in the Tharsis volcanic region on the Martian surface is enveloped by lava. ->Besides lava there is a geophysical traces of material apart from lava in the Lal Crater having a thick accumulation of sediment of thickness 45 m underneath the crater. ->The observations of the Mursan and Hilsa craters suggest that the Lal crater wasn't filled at once, but rather through multiple stages or episodes. Conclusively, we can say that with the help of SHARAD MRO scientists are about to unravel the mysteries of the Martian surface and its atmosphere. Also with the names of the craters on Bharatiya Scientist Devendra Lal and towns of UP and Bihar our Bharat is pioneering in the realms of space and discoveries and the coming years it will be on the pinnacle of celestial prowess. Thank You. References:

  • Rocket Lab Frontiers In Cosmic Realm -Launches NASA's Cubesat For Studying Heat Lost From Earth's Poles

    Hello, Everyone! To build yet another success story in space to serve humanity and shape our Earth's future, Rocket Lab a space organization and pioneer in space and launch systems launched an Electron rocket from the company's site stationed in New Zealand at 7:41 Pm on 25th May 2024. The Electron rocket was launched for PREFIRE {Polar Radiant Energy in the Far Infrared Experience} Mission to research and observe climate thoroughly. Pic Source: Pic URL: But what is Electron Rocket? It is an orbital launch vehicle comprising dual stages with reusable properties and engineered by Rocket Lab-A U.S.-based space organization. Let us ponder over some of its salient features:- -> The rocket body incorporates a carbon composite material. Both the stages of the rocket possess a diameter of 1.2 meters. The propellants employed to power the missile are RP-1/LOX. To power the rocket RP -1 which is short for Rocket Propellant 1 or Refined Petroleum 1 is used as a fuel. It is an extensive refined form of Kerosene such as jet fuel. It renders low criticalities and low specific impulse. The carbon composites are understood as carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are extremely stealthy and lightweight materials the carbon composite incorporates carbon fibers implanted into a carbon matrix. -> LOX abbreviated for liquid oxygen is used as an Oxidizer. Refined Petroleum is used in rockets because of lesser explosion criticality, is stable at room temperature, and is much cheaper. However, the Lower Specific Impulse is there for RP-1. The Low specific impulse implies more fuel is needed to generate thrust. Notably, an engine with a higher specific impulse is assumed to be efficient as it generates higher thrust for the same amount of propellant. ->Both stages employ the Rutherford engine. But what is the Rutherford Engine? It is the maiden electric pump-led engine to fuel an orbital rocket. The electric pump is fueled by Li (Lithium)- Polymer batteries. The electric pump-fed engine has two propellants which power the rocket engine. The fuel pumps are fed through electricity and hence the incoming propellant is straight away burnt in the combustion chamber and not even a trace of fuel is directed to the pump. When compared to the conventional rocket engine, the pumps are powered through some portion of input propellant. Rutherford Engine offers simplicity and yet high efficiency. ->In the second stage the three batteries are employed which are hot-swapped (hot swap batteries are those that can be replaced without the requirement to shut down the device or the system which they power --it implies they are extremely customizable as per the requirement. Here, two of the batteries are expelled once exhausted to lower the mass). ->In the first stage the 9 Rutherford engines are employed and in the second one a Vaccum-optimized version is used which generates a thrust of 25.8 KN The satellite was successfully deployed into orbit 53 minutes post-launch as was predetermined by Rocket Lab. The twin PREFIRE satellites CubeSats are "6U" cubes on the sides. Here U refers to the cube of (4 inches } Therefore 6U Cube Sat implies that it is of the size of 6U or 6 units of 4 inches. So what do the two PREFIRE satellites do? The PREFIRE CubeSats were predetermined to reach about 326-mile altitude or 525 km circular orbits. Once they were deployed at this altitude to carefully quantify the heat radiated from Earth's poles. This is a groundbreaking achievement for the rocket lab as this has never been done before -an observation done from orbit above Earth. But how will PREFIRE Satellites measure the heat emanating from Earth's polar regions? The pinnacle of exceptional engineering -the CubeSats will traverse in a crisscross manner over the Arctic and Antarctica; quantifying the thermal infrared heat emitted from the poles. This quantification of the thermal infrared heat radiation will eventually bolster the precision of climate models and enhance the forecast of the potential changes owing to global warming according to Rocket Lab's mission chronicle. The launch is the 48thedition of the launch for the Electron Rocket with an altitude of 59 -foot height or 18 meters height which has been engineered to deploy small satellites or nanosatellites -CubeSats to the designated orbit. But what is CubeSat? CubeSats developed by NASA are nanosatellites that have been incorporated into the mission owing to their small sizes and lightweight properties. The PREFIRE comprises two CubeSats of the size of the size of a shoebox decked up with heat sensors which will render a precise insight of quantified heat emission from Earth's polar regions into the cosmos. The PREFIRE Mission was co-developed by NASA and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This PREFIRE Mission is maiden launch with" Ready, Aim, PREFIRE" on 25th of May 2024. Conclusively we can say that the landmark PREFIRE mission launched by Rocket Lab envisions carefully quantifying the heat radiated from Earth's poles.This quantification of the thermal infrared heat radiation will eventually bolster the precision of climate models and enhance the forecast of the potential changes owing to global warming and will be a great aid to mankind. Thank You. References:

  • Upcoming Bharatiya Chief Of Army -Lt.Gen Upendra Dwivedi Announced By Union Govt

    Hello, Everyone! On Tuesday night (11th of June 2024), the Union Government announced regards to the upcoming Chief of the Army as Lt. Gen Upendra Dwivedi. Presently he is functioning as Vice Chief of the Army staff. Lt. Gen Upendra Dwivedi will be the next Chief of Army post General Manoj Pande, retiring on 30th June 2024. Pic Source : INDIAN EXPRESS PIC URL: Centering on the wealth of experience of Lt. Gen Dwivedi let us delve into his long and successful army career. He has wide-ranging experience through the borders of China and Pakistan. He will take over the army chief office after noon on the 30th of June 2024, per the authorized speaker's statements. Lt Gen Dwivedi took over the charge of the vice chief of the Army on 19th February 2024 and functioned as General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of Northern Command from 2 years 2022 to 2024. In an unusual move done by the Appointments Committee of cabinet led by PM Modi extended the term of Gen . Manoj Pande by a month few days before his retirement. This is the second case of such a move. Earlier such extension was given to Gen. GG Bewoor by Indira Gandhi Government about 5 years ago in 2019. Gen. Bewoor had taken the charge of army chief after Field Marshal SHEJ Manekshaw in Jan 1973. Lt Gen Dwivedi was authorized to get engaged in the infantry (Jammu and Kashmir Rifles ) of the Bharatiya Army on 15th Dec 1984. He has functioned in diverse roles during his 40 years of long and successful career. He had functioned in various Command Staff, Instructional including Foreign appointments. According to a spokesperson in his Command role Lt Gen Dwivedi had served as: -> Command of Regiment (18 Jammu and Kashmir Rifles) ->Brigade (26 Sector Assam Rifles) ->DIG ->Assam Rifles (East) -> 9 Corps Being a former student of Sainik school from Rewa, Lt Gen Upendra Dwivedi had functioned into 19 Jammu and Kashmir Rifles of the Bharatiya Army on 15 Dec 1984. He led the unit later on. While holding the prestigious rank of Lt. Gen, he has managed many vital positions including Director General Infantry. The army officer had been honored with the coveted Param Vishist Seva Medal, Ati Vishist Seva Medal, and 3 General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Commendation cards which are the military awards of the Bharatiya army that exemplify his dedicated acts of his distinguished duty. As per officials while serving as Northern Army Commander Lt Gen Dwivedi has rendered his military guidance along with supervision and management for tactical planning and implementation of ongoing operations throughout the length of Northern and Western borders apart from coordinating the intense counter-terrorism operations in Jammu and Kashmir. The official also stated that, while serving as Northern Army Commander Lt Dwivedi had been proactively engaged in the sustained deliberations with China for the pursuit of settling China's contentious Sino-Bharat Border debate. He showcased his supreme management skills by novelizing and provisioning the largest Army Command of the Bharatiya Army by directing the introduction of Bharat-developed equipment to symbolize Atmanirbhar Bharat (Self Reliant Bharat). Conclusively we can say that with the upcoming Chief of Army soon to assume his appointment our our country's Army will get bolstered and will keep writing new vista of amazing dilligence ,galantry and valour. Thank You. References: The article " LT GENERAL DWIVEDI NAMED CHIEF OF ARMY) in the section of MY INDIA in Physical Copy of Hindustan Times

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  • Forum | Freshwords

    To see this working, head to your live site. Categories All Posts My Posts Forum Welcome! Have a look around and join the discussions. Create New Post General Discussion Share stories, ideas, pictures and more! subcategory-list-item.views subcategory-list-item.posts 3 Follow Questions & Answers Get answers and share knowledge. subcategory-list-item.views subcategory-list-item.posts 0 Follow New Posts Ananya Sharma Mar 19 Welcome to the Forum General Discussion Share your thoughts. Feel free to add GIFs, videos, hashtags and more to your posts and comments. Get started by commenting below. Like 0 comments 0 Ananya Sharma Mar 19 Introduce yourself General Discussion We'd love to get to know you better. Take a moment to say hi to the community in the comments. Like 0 comments 0 Ananya Sharma Mar 19 Forum rules General Discussion We want everyone to get the most out of this community, so we ask that you please read and follow these guidelines: • Respect each other • Keep posts relevant to the forum topic • No spamming Like 0 comments 0 Forum - Frameless About The Havana Syndrome

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